Ernest Hemingway

Hemingway working on ''[[For Whom the Bell Tolls]]'' at the Sun Valley Lodge, 1939 Ernest Miller Hemingway (; July 21, 1899 – July 2, 1961) was an American novelist, short-story writer and journalist. Best known for an economical, understated style that significantly influenced later 20th-century writers, he is often romanticized for his adventurous lifestyle, and outspoken and blunt public image. Most of Hemingway's works were published between the mid-1920s and mid-1950s, including seven novels, six short-story collections and two non-fiction works. His writings have become classics of American literature; he was awarded the 1954 Nobel Prize in Literature, while three of his novels, four short-story collections and three nonfiction works were published posthumously.

Hemingway was raised in Oak Park, Illinois in the Chicago area. After high school, he spent six months as a cub reporter for ''The Kansas City Star'' before enlisting in the Red Cross. He served as an ambulance driver on the Italian Front in World War I and was seriously wounded in 1918. His wartime experiences formed the basis for his 1929 novel ''A Farewell to Arms''. He married Hadley Richardson in 1921, the first of four wives. They moved to Paris where he worked as a foreign correspondent for the ''Toronto Star'' and fell under the influence of the modernist writers and artists of the 1920s' "Lost Generation" expatriate community. His debut novel ''The Sun Also Rises'' was published in 1926.

He divorced Richardson in 1927 and married Pauline Pfeiffer. They divorced after he returned from the Spanish Civil War, where he had worked as a journalist and which formed the basis for his 1940 novel ''For Whom the Bell Tolls''. Martha Gellhorn became his third wife in 1940. He and Gellhorn separated after he met Mary Welsh in London during World War II. Hemingway was present with Allied troops as a journalist at the Normandy landings and the liberation of Paris. He maintained permanent residences in Key West, Florida, in the 1930s and in Cuba in the 1940s and 1950s. On a 1954 trip to Africa, he was seriously injured in two plane accidents on successive days, leaving him in pain and ill health for much of the rest of his life. In 1959 he bought a house in Ketchum, Idaho, where, on July 2, 1961, he shot himself in the head. Provided by Wikipedia
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